LQar^ 80 ?
MORTON D. HULL
PRESIDE N T
A. A RAYMOND
VICE-PRES & GEN'L MG
JOHN A. GAUGE R
H. R. MOVER
MARQUIS EATON, counsel
<a TRUST BUILDING
CHICAGO : U. S. A.
THE Raymond Systems of Con-
crete Piling are fully protected
by Letters Patent of the United States
and of all the principal foreign coun-
tries. Any infringements will be
prosecuted to the fullest extent of the
Ufte Raymond System
RAYMOND CONCRETE PILES have been used
successfully, since their introduction in J90J, by a large
number of architects and engineers of high standing
throughout the United States, including engineers of the
United States Government, The most rigid tests have
been imposed, and the results have been in all cases more
than satisfactory* Their use has not been confined to
any particular locality, nor to any particular kind of
soil, but they have proven of great value and economy
from New York to Colorado, and in soils of all kinds-
dry sand, quicksand, clay, mud, silt, and filled ground.
Concrete piling is undoubtedly the piling of the future
and will be used more and more as it becomes more widely
known* For the entire success of concrete piling it is all-
important that the system used should be based on sound
mechanical and engineering principles* We believe that
a thoughtful perusal of this catalogue will convince all
thorough investigators of the undoubted superiority of the
Raymond System* We are certain that those who have
most carefully examined the entire subject of concrete pil-
ing are most appreciative of the Raymond System and of
the value of the perfect monolithic pile which is always
assured by that system and by no other.
Raymond Concrete Piles are usually put in by either
of two methods — the jetting method, or the pile core
The jetting method is described on page 8 of this
catalogue. It is adaptable only to soils such as sand,
quicksand, silt, etc*, which will flow readily under a
The pile core method, which is the method more
generally used for foundation work, may be briefly de-
scribed as follows r A collapsible steel pile core, conical in
shape (see p. 5), is encased in a thin, tight-fitting metal
shell. The core and shell are driven into the ground by
means of a pile driver (preferably fitted with a steam
hammer). The core is so constructed that when the de-
sired depth has been reached it is collapsed and loses con-
tact with the shell, so that it can be easily withdrawn,
leaving the shell or casing in the ground to act as a mould
or form for the concrete and to prevent the admixture of
extraneous matter. When the core is withdrawn, the
shell or casing is filled with carefully mixed Portland Ce-
ment Concrete, which is thoroughly tamped during the
represents the shell, driven in the ground.
represents the exterior plates, l t in, thick)
of the pile core.
represents the stem of the pile core, made
of extra heavy pipe of diminishing diam-
eter as the lower end of the pile core is
represents the wedge shaped castings fit-
ted to the exterior plates.
represents the corresponding wedges fit-
ted to the interior stem. This wedge is
made of a steel casting, which also acts
as a collar for coupling together the
various sizes of pipes forming the stem.
represents hinges linking the exterior
plates and interior stem of the core.
Note their position when core is ex-
represents the head of the core, made of
cast steel hollowed out at the top to re-
ceive an oak cap block, which receives
the blow of the hammer.
keys to keep the exterior plates in place
represents cross section, showing opening
between plates to allow for collapsing.
Fig. i. Sectional view of Raymond pile core, showing col-
lapsing and expanding device. (Steam hammer in the leads rest-
ing upon the core). In this illustration the shell is driven and the
Fig. 2. Sectional view of pile core collapsed and ready to
withdraw from the shell.
Note that wedges tf and e are no longer in contact, thus
allowing the plates b to collapse toward centre of core, leaving
a space between plates h of core and shell r/. Note also posi-
tion of hinges /'when core is collapsed.
Fig. 3. Pile core collapsed and partly withdrawn from the shell. The
shell remains in the ground and forms a mould for the concrete, assuring a
Fig. 4. A completed Raymond Concrete Pile, without reinforcement.
The above cut represents
the water jet system of plac-
ing concrete piles. This sys-
tem is used only where the
material penetrated is sand,
quicksand.siltor soft material
that will dissolve and flow up
outside the pile when the
water is forced through the
pipe. The first illustration
on the left shows a nest of
tapering sheet iron shells. A
point is fastened to the inner
shell anda2 -inch pipe, with -4-inch nozzle is attached
to the center of this point Water is forced through the
pipe, causing the shell to settle until it comes in con-
tact with the next shell, and so on until the desired
depth has been reached.
The shells are filled with concrete simultaneously with the sinking pro-
cess, and when necessary, spreaders are attached to keep the whole in
perfect line with the pipe.
During a test of this system, made in the Missouri River near Omaha.
Nebraska, a pile 10 inches in diameter at the bottom. 20 inches at the top,
wa* sunk to a depth of 75 feet in sand with only 40 pounds of water pressure.
The 2 inch pipe is left in the center of the pile and gives it greatly increased lateral strength,
desired, the lateral strength may be further increased by inserting rods near the outer surface of the
By th.s method piles of any size up to two feet in diameter at the bottom and four feet at the top
can be put in through any depth of water and to a suitable penetration in sand or silt.
The Points of Excellence of the Raymond
The superiority of the Raymond Concrete Pile over
any other form of concrete piling consists in (I) the
use of a shell or form for each pile, (2) the tapering
shape of the pile, (3) the ease of reinforcement, (4) the
comparative rapidity of work, (5) no driving on the con-
The To all who have given the matter careful
Shell, consideration, it is very evident that the Ray-
mond System of Concrete Piling is the only one
that can be depended upon absolutely to meet all require-
ments, even under adverse conditions* There is airways
a form or mould for the concrete. What careful architect
or engineer would place green concrete in quicksand, silt,
mud, or any porous or unstable soil without protecting it
with a form? How much more important, therefore, it is
to protect the concrete which is placed in such material un-
der ground, where there is often great pressure ! With
the Raymond Concrete Piles it is always possible to ascer-
tain that the hole is a perfect one, and thus to be certain
of a perfect pile. This is not possible with a concrete pile
which does not use a shell. With the Raymond System
there is no working in the dark.
Numerous experiments have been made in an endeavor
to put in concrete piles without a protecting form, but in
most instances they have proven unsuccessful. In sand
and quicksand it was found that the concrete mixed with
the sand or quicksand to an extent that made their use
unsafe. In cinders and filled ground, it was found that
the cement had run out into the surrounding material
and left only sand and stone instead of concrete. In other
soil it was found that when the work was finished, while
the hole was filled, apparently with concrete, it had re-
quired but two-thirds as much concrete as the cubic ca-
pacity of the hole*
The For most foundation work it has been
Tapering found, by careful experiment, that large
Shape. tapering piles are the best and most eco-
nomical. Where it is necessary to use piling*
the ground is usually of a rather poor character, except
perhaps on the surface. By using large, tapering concrete
piles, J 8 in. or 20 in. in diameter at the top and 6 in. or
8 in. in diameter at the point, a very much less number
of lineal feet of piling is required than if straight piles are
used. The superior bearing power of a tapering pile over
a straight pile is particularly demonstrated where it is
found that there is a hard surface stratum of ground
underlaid by softer material. The straight pile will,
under such conditions, drive comparatively hard till it has
entirely penetrated the hard stratum above, when it will
drive very easily for a considerable depth, the friction
being relatively slight because the pile is straight. On
the other hand, the tapering pile may, in such soil, drive
comparatively easily at first, because of the small size of
the point. But as it is driven further into the ground, it
will drive harder and harder with each blow of the ham-
mer, whether it has penetrated entirely through the upper
stratum or not, since from its tapering shape it has to in-
crease the size of the hole for the entire distance of its
penetration into the ground. The full bearing value
of the soil is thus taken advantage of by a tapering pile,
and what seems relatively poor soil may be found to have
a great sustaining value. The value of tapering con-
crete piles has been attested by the Government Engineers
at the new Naval Academy buildings at Annapolis, Md.,
where careful tests were made and where large tapering
Raymond Concrete Piles were used in place of a much
greater number of very much longer wooden piles.
Ease of The reinforcement of concrete piles
Reinforcement. by steel rods is sometimes found desir-
able for certain uses* This is always
a simple matter with the Raymond System. Whether
the shell or casing, which is always used, is jetted into
place or driven, the insertion of the reinforcing material
is done when the concrete is put in, and is simple, is in
plain sight, and requires no unusual skilL
Rapidity As time is money, and as the largest item
of of cost of a concrete pile under any system is
WorK. the labor cost, the comparatively greater ra-
pidity of work under the Raymond System
than under any other will commend itself to everyone. As
speed of work is always more or less governed by local
conditions, such as the length and spacing of the piles and
the character of the soil to be penetrated, it is not possible
to give exact figures suitable to all conditions. But, in
making comparisons with other methods, one must note
that in the use of the Raymond Pile Core method, after a
tapering shell or casing has been driven, there is no slow
and laborious withdrawing of the pile core, against the
frictional resistance of the earth. As soon as the shell is
driven, the core is collapsed or reduced in its diameter for
its entire length, so as to lose contact with the shell, and
is easily and quickly lifted out, ready to drive the next
shell, without waiting for the filling of the one already
driven. Under favorable conditions fifteen 20-ft. Ray-
mond Concrete Piles have been put in in two and one-half
hours* And in moderately hard driving, requiring from
400 to 500 blows of a No. 2 Vulcan steam hammer,
thirty-seven 20-ft. Raymond Piles have been put in in
one day with a single driver.
The Numerous attempts have been made to
Driving, build and afterward drive the actual concrete
pile* But these attempts have met with but
a limited success. Such piles require in their manufacture
heavy reinforcement with steel rods, which makes them
expensive, and when driven they cannot stand a hard
blow of the hammer without fracture. Under the Ray-
mond System there is no driving on the concrete. A
steel pile core, carrying a sheet-metal shell, is driven as
described on page 4; the core is then withdrawn, and
the shell afterward filled with concrete, which sets or hard-
ens in place*
As Raymond Concrete Piles are made where they are
used, their cost varies, depending upon the cost of trans-
porting machinery to the site, the availability of material,
the character of the soil to be penetrated, the number and
spacing of the piles, and the general labor conditions of
While concrete piles necessarily cost more per lineal
foot than wooden piling, the economy in the use of con-
crete piles as against wooden piles is very considerable*
It is due, first, to the much smaller number of concrete
piles required to carry the necessary load, one concrete pile
having, on account of its great size and taper, practically
the carrying capacity of three ordinary wooden piles of
the same length ; and, secondly, to the great saving of
excavation and masonry so generally required where
wooden piles are used.
The illustrations on pages 14, J 5 and 16 show very
fully the saving effected.
As to the economy in the use of Raymond Concrete
Piles, we refer to the letters of architects contained in this
catalogue. In the work done for the United States Naval
Academy at Annapolis, a saving of more than $27,000
was made over the estimated cost of a foundation using
wooden piles according to the original plan. The follow-
ing table, taken from an article by the Inspector in charge
of this work, published in the Engineering Record of
March 4 t J 905, shows how this saving was effected :
COMPARATIVE COST OF WOOD AND CONCRETE PILES.
2, 193 piles at $9.50 $20,835.50
4,542 cubic yds. excavation " .40 1,816.80
3,250 " " concrete.. 8.00 26,000.00
5,222 lbs. I-beams ........ .04 208.88
Shoring and pumping 4,000.00
Total cost $52,861.18
Co it crefe Piles.
855 piles at $20,00 $17, 100.00
1,038 cubic yds. excavation " .40 415.00
986 " " concrete.. " 8.00 7,888.00
Shoring and pumping
Total cost $25,403.00
Saving by use of Concrete Piles $27,458.18
COMPARISON OF Ordinary wooden piles average about 12 inches in diameter at the top
CONCRETE PILE and have 113 square inches of surface. Concrete piles, 20 inches in
WITH WOODEN PILE diameter at the top. have 314 square inches of surface, or 2.77 times
that of the wooden pile. The taper of a wooden pile is only about
three or four inches from top to bottom, while the taper of the concrete pile is from 10 to 14 inches.
The above illustration gives a fair representation of what may be saved by the use of concrete
piles. The three concrete piles, each 20 inches in diam ;tar. have a bearing surface of 942 square
inches, while the five wooden piles, each 12 inches in diameter, which is a fair average have a
bearing surface of 565 square inches. Note the additional concrete required on top of the wooden
piles, which must be cut off below water line to insure their permanency. It is also frequently neces-
sary to drive sheet piling around the trenches in order to make the excavation to water line.
f "S § ii
co ~ * a
Comparison of Head Surfaces.
On account of its great taper the Raymond Concrete
Pile has a marked advantage in point of economy over
all other piles, whether concrete or wood* The following
comparison of the head surfaces of piles of different diam-
eters will be of interest :
314.16 sq. in.
113.09 " "
339.27 " "
One JO-inch Raymond Pile,
One 12-inch pile,
Three 12-inch piles,
One 14-inch pile,
Two 14-inch piles,
One 16-inch pile,
Two 16-inch piles,
It will be noted that a 20-inch Raymond pile has
314.16 square inches of head surface, while a 12-inch pile
has but 113-09 square inches, a 14-inch pile but 153.93
square inches and a 16-inch pile but 201.06 square inches.
It will be seen further that three 12-inch piles have but
339.27 square inches of head surface, or only 25.11 square
inches more than one 20-inch Raymond pile ; that two
14-inch piles have but 307.86 square inches, or 6.30 less
than one 20-inch Raymond pile; and that two 16-inch
piles have but 402.12 square inches, or only 87.96 more
than one 20-inch Raymond pile.
In all the foregoing illustrations, comparison is made
with a concrete pile having a diameter of 20 inches at the
top. If the Raymond method of jetting concrete piles is
used, the diameter both at the top and at the point of the
pile can be made to suit the conditions of the work. If,
however, the pile core method is used, the dimensions of
the standard sizes of concrete piles are as follows:
20 ft. long, 20 inches at the top and 6 inches at the point.
25 " • 20 ' " 8 •
30 '■ •• 20 • 8
35 •' 18 8
40 .. .. 18 .. .
For all ordinary foundation work where it is not re-
quired to go to rock or hard pan, the experience of the
Raymond Concrete Pile Company has demonstrated that
it is preferable to use the 20-foot length, and if necessary
to increase the number of piles, rather than to increase
their length, the shorter pile with its greater taper having
a greater bearing value per lineal foot of piling than the
longer pile. Under such conditions three 20-foot piles
have a greater bearing capacity than two 30-foot piles*
We are often asked to state just what load may safely
be placed on a Raymond Concrete Pile, It is manifestly
impossible to furnish a table accurately showing the carry-
ing capacity of piles, as the soil is not exactly the same in
any two places- All tests which we have made, or which
have been made by the architects and engineers on our
work, indicate, however, that from two to three times as
much can be placed upon a Raymond Concrete Pile as
upon an ordinary wooden pile of the same length under
the same conditions. The following quotation from the
article by the Inspector in charge of the Naval Academy
work at Annapolis (see illustrations on pages 27 to 30 of
this catalogue) bears on this point :
" The difference in bearing power between a conical and cylin-
drical pile was shown by an experiment tried on this work at the
Naval Academy. A Raymond pile core tapered from 6 in. at the
point to 20 in. at the head, was driven 19 ft. until the penetration
under two blows from a 2,000-Ib. hammer falling 20 feet was 7-8 in.
A wood pile 9 1-2 in. at the point, and 1 1 in. at the head and having
the same length, 19 ft., as the conical pile, had a penetration of
5 5-16 in. under two blows of the same hammer, falling 20 ft. This
pile was driven after the concrete pile and about 2 ft. from it, thus
showing the comparative bearing power between a conical and a
cylindrical pile of the same length.
"Tests were made by loading the [concrete] piles, and it was esti-
mated that all piles with the same penetration as the test piles would
have the same bearing power. A 17 1-2-ft. pile driven with a 20-ft.
core, 6 in. in diameter at the point and 20 in, at the head, having a
penetration of 1 in. under twenty blows of a steam hammer, was
loaded with 41 tons. Levels were taken during the loading and at
intervals for one month. At the end of the month the total settle-
ment was 0.007 ft. or 3-32 in.
"Another 28 1-2 ft. pile was driven with a 30- ft. core, 6 in. at
the point and 20 in. at the head, had a penetration of 5-16 in. under
ten blows with the steam hammer. The pile was loaded with 42
tons. Levels were taken during the loading, showing a settlement
of 0.002 ft., and at intervals for one month, showing no additional
settlement. This pile was driven outside of the old sea wall in that
portion of the land reclaimed from the Severn River, which had
been filled with sand and mud three years previously.
"A test pile was driven at the northerly end of the building on
that part of the ground reclaimed from the Severn River. This pile
was driven with a 30-ft. core, a distance of 22 1-2 ft., having a pene-
tration of 1 in. for eight blows with the steam hammer. The diam-
eter of the pile was 6 in, at the point and 16 in. at the head. It was
loaded with 41 tons and had a settlement of 0.007 ft., or 3-32 in.
Ten days later it showed a total settlement of 0.009 ft. The load
was then increased to 45 tons, with no additional settlement, and
finally, it was increased to 66 1-2 tons, showing a total settlement of
0.035 ft., or less than 7-16 in. There was no additional settlement
when the load was removed six days later." (See illustration, page
Obviously, it is not possible to make fixed or standard
prices for Raymond Concrete Piles, as the cost varies
widely according to the conditions in each particular case;
and so necessary is a knowledge of such conditions in
making estimates, that we refrain from giving any fig-
ures here, even in a general way* We are always glad,
however, to furnish plans for foundations with Raymond
Concrete Piles, upon receipt of the general foundation
plans, with complete data as to soil conditions, loads to be
carried, etc* We will also, upon request, send a representa-
tive anywhere at any time, at our own expense, to figure
on prospective work*
The The necessary equipment for construct -
Pile Core ing concrete piles according to the Raymond
Method. Pile Core Method, aside from the pile driver
(which preferably in this work should be
fitted with a steam hammer), consists of
1. The Core;
2. A quantity of sheet iron for making shells, usually
No. 20 gauge ;
3. A heavy cornice break for bending the sheet iron
to shape, with the usual complement of shears and mallets
for cutting and seaming the iron*
Raymond Pile Core and Shell. A shell is driven for every pile and left in
the ground to form a perfect mould for the Concrete.
cased in shell, ready to be driv
Raymond Pile Core and Shell fully driven. Core will be withdrawn and
Shell filled with Concrete, The shell makes it possible to see that
the hole is a clean and perfect one, thus insuring a
perfect pile. No working in the dark.
.5 fi d
.c V o
• <■> c
Raymond Concrete Piles in foundation of Library Building, United States
Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md.
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tMIt OlCBITSCi-i c.c
PCTCH A -GAOC
JOHN PEIRCE COMPANY
BROADWAY CHAMBERS 277 BROADWAY
(TELEPHONE 3IO* I
new york May 24,1905,
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.,
135 Adams Street,
In regard to the concrete piles, which ^ou
drove for us in the foundation of the Academic Group
of buildings at the U, S. Naval Academy, Annapolis,
Maryland, we are very willing to bear testimony to the
saving in labor, time and money duo to the substituting
of concrete piles for wooden piles in these foundations.
The original plans called for 2200 wooden
piles cut off below low water with a capping of concrete
about 3300 cubic yard3-to bring the foundations to grade.
To get down to the low water level required sheet
piling, shoring and pumping and the excavation of nearly
5000 cubic yards of earth.
By substituting your concrete piles the work
was reduced to driving 850 concrete piles, excavating
1000 cubic yards of earth and placing 1000 cubic vards •
A comparison of quantities will give at a
glance the saving in time and money achieved. The piles
stood the severe test of the U. S. Government officials
without the slightest indication of failure.
The foundations as built are eminently
satisfactory to us, to the Architect and to the IT. S.
John Peirce Company.
A trench of Raymond Concrete Piles for wall of the Crunden- Martin
Woodenware Company's warehouse, St. Louis, Mo.
o 1 S
MAURAN. RUSSELL L GARDEN
May 23rd, .1905.
Raymond Concrete PUe Company,
135 Adams Street, Chicago.
We take great pleasure in expressing to you our apprecia-
tion of the utility, effectiveness and structural character and
quality of your concrete pile work installed at the Crunden-Mar-
tin Woodenware Company's new plant in this city. We have done
considerable pile work in St. Louis and have found nothing which
so thoroughly fits looal conditions as your concrete pile.
We take pleasure in expressing also our appreciation of
your courtesy and willingness to assist in overcoming- difficul-
ties. We deem the use of your piles effects a considerable sav-
ing over other similar forms of construction and the entire sys-
tem has our commendation.
Very truly yours,
i4oi HI w vo»« iirr iun.P'"4
171 LASALLE STREET
subject- Klots Bide.
Chic ago, May 22,1905
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.,
Complying with your verbal request of today, we
take pleasure in expressing our views In writing, of the concrete
piles at the Klotz Bldg: When we first considered foundations for
this building, we were faced with the bad condition of the soil
which was very wet and soft and contained considerable quick sand.
Inasmuch as it was unnecessary to put in a basement, we felt that
it would be economy to use your concrete piles, which was done with
economy and satisfactory results.
RICHARD3 WCARTy T BVLFORO
May 19th, 1905.
Raymond Concrete Pile Co.,
135 Adams St. , „
Replying to your inquiry of the 13th, would say, it af-
fords us pleasure to* state, that the concrete piling you put
in for us under the foundation of the Eldridge & Higgins
Company's warehouse at Marietta, Ohio, has proven perfectly
satisfactory in every respect.
We were confronted when we began the construction of
this building v/ith a very serious proposition. It was lo-
cated on filled ground over what had formerly been a swamp.
We could not use wood piling on account of the fact that we
could not get it below the water level. After careful in-
vestigation we concluded to try your piling and the result has
been extremely satisfactory. We consider that the use of your
piling has saved us at least $3000 in concrete work. Th« build-
ing has been in use for several months, is heavily loaded and
there is not the least indication of a settlement in any part
of it, "although about one half of the building is on piling
and the other half on solid ground outside of the limits of
the filing and the swampy soil. We consider this even a better
test than had the foundation been uniform over the entire area.
We shall bear you in mind for future work and if
we can be of any service to you at any time we would be glad
to do so.
Yours very truly,
richards, Mccarty & bttlford.
East end of power station of the Union Electric Company, Dubuque,
rests upon fifty 20-ft. Raymond Concrete Piles.
Machinery Warehouse, Chicago, built upon Raymond Concrete Pile foun-
dation early in 1905, in soil of mud, clay and quicksand. No settlement.
Raymond Concrete Piles in foundation of United States Express Co. Bldg.,
West 23d Street, New York City. Ernest Flag^, Architect.
o .t: w
« * to.
The above illustration shows two designs for concrete pile trestle work.
Fig. i Shows Raymond Concrete Piles to the surface of the ground and covered with a
reinforced concrete pier.
Fig. 2 Shows reinforced Raymond Concrete Piles extending to desired height of trestle,
with wood or concrete cap securely bolted to top of piles. The piles are sway braced with a
reinforced concrete web. The piles are 20 in. in diameter from the ground line up. In this con-
struction the reinforcing rods run from near the bottom of the piles to the top, extending into the
Concrete pile foundations for abutments and piers. In abutments, the
cofferdam and the excavating and refilling with concrete will be saved, as
concrete piles can be driven at any point above low water mark without
fear of decay. By their use, work may be begun on the abutment founda-
tion at any time regardless of whether the river or creek is at its highest
or its lowest stage.